To ruminate is to think carefully and deeply about something.  So why does ruminating get in the way of both happiness and confidence?  Another definition which relates to the physical behaviour of animals is more informative.  In this context, to ruminate is to bring up and chew again what has already been chewed and swallowed.  Who among us has not made a mistake and revisits that mistake in our heads over and over with the same feelings of regret and failure that occurred at the time of the actual experience.  In some cases thinking about the mistake can last a lifetime.  Some of us are more prone to this mental activity than others.  If done a lot there is a constant release of fear and anxiety drugs flowing into the system making it difficult or nearly impossible to experience joy or to approach life with confidence.

Remind yourself daily in your Happy Heart Journal to notice when you are ruminating and to stop yourself.  Eventually, you will change the brain pattern. [Russell]